Process Steps

Term Definition
Academic Plan The basis for implementing the mission of both school and department. It identifies new initiatives, programs to support and emphasize, and prescribes enhancements such as interdisciplinary teaching, an emphasis on hands-on experiences and student projects, the use of computers, and the use of media.
Academic Program A general program of studies designed to prepare students for the common activities of a citizen, family member, and worker. A general program of studies may include instruction in both academic and vocational areas.
Access A means of approach, e.g., a road, street , walk, or corridor.
Advisory Committee Educators and other professionals who have a broad understanding of science education today.
American Institute of Architects (AIA) A professional organization, founded in 1857, whose purpose is to establish and promote professionalism and accountability on the part of its members, and to promote architectural design excellence.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) A federal law, enacted in 1990, requiring that public accommodations be accessible to those having physical disabilities; this law requires that existing physical barriers be replaced or modified so there are no impediments to access by the physically disabled.
Architect A person professionally qualified and licensed to perform building design services, and who is trained and experienced in the coordination and supervision of all aspects of the building construction process.
Architectural Characteristics The combination of materials and detailing that distinguishes a building.
Bay Width The dimension of a structural support system between supporting columns or walls in a building.
Bench A laboratory work area at standing- or sitting-height.
Bench Space The square footage available on the bench surfaces in a lab.
Bench, Island Lab benches that are not adjacent to walls.
Bench, Pedestal Lab benches that run adjacent and perpendicular to the walls.
Bench, Peninsula Lab benches that run adjacent and perpendicular to the walls.
Bench, Perimeter Lab benches that run adjacent and parallel to the walls.
Benches, Double-sided Lab benches with access from two sides, workstations facing each other.
Benches, Fixed and at Standing Height Laboratory work areas that are built into the room design and are not moveable.
Benches, Moveable Laboratory work areas that are mobile to accommodate vaious teaching and work situations.
Bidding Process The phase of the construction process during which competitive bids or negotiated proposals are requested as the basis for awarding a contract.
Building Committee A committee to see a particular building project through all of its phases from compiling a list of architects to interviewing for the projected new construction or renovation project through project completion.
Building Service Area The sum of all areas on all floors of a building used for mechanical support, custodial supplies, janitorial closets, and for public rest rooms.
Building Systems An assembly of integrated subsystems, such as heating, ventilating, air conditioning, plumbing, and electrical, that perform specific functions in the building.
Cable Tray An assembly to support power or data/voice cables for organized distribution. The tray can be enclosed but generally consists of a ladder-like framework on the bottom and sides with open top.
Campus Plan In response to institutional mission and priorities, a comprehensive physical development plan describing and justifying the size, function, cost, location, and sequence of development for new construction and the continuing use and/or reuse of existing facilities, so as to achieve a functional and attractive physical setting and an appropriate sense of place.
Case Study A detailed analysis of an individiual or group, especially as an exemplary model of a particular phenomenon.
Chair Desk Discussion area seating where the chair is attached to a recangular desk-like writing/work surface.
Circulation Area The sum of all areas on all floors of a building required for physical access to some subdivision of space, whether physically bounded by partitions or not.
City and State Standards Zoning, structural and environmental regulations, workplace safety codes, mandatory educational standards.
Clean Space A space, void of airborne dust and dirt particles, that is typically used in technology education for research and design. (see "Dirty Space.")
Clean Work Work performed in Clean Space.
Computers An electronic device that performs such actions as high-speed calculations and processing of information. Will computers in labs be part of the curriculum? If so, how many students can be expected to share one computer. The computers can be along the periphery of the lab, at stations in an area within the lab, or adjacent to or on the lab benches. Ideally there should be multiple ports for laptops or cabling so future ports can be provided. Don¹t forget that computers or laptops might be used in project and prep space.
Construction Documents Drawings and specifications setting forth in detail the requirements for the construction of the project.
Context Plan An abridged but documented campus plan study that identifies the purpose, location, priority, and sequence of projected physical improvements; their relationship to each other and to existing physical resources; and their campus design implications and potential.
Contractor One who undertakes responsibility for the performance of construction work, including the provisions of labor and materials, in accordance with plans and specifications and under a contract specifying cost and schedule for completion of the work.
Curriculum A particular course of study that can be lab-based, lecture-based with a lab component, or lecture-based with demonstration lab work. Curriculum issues that impact the amount of space a program needs are optimum class size, student collaborative learning, and student research or special projects.
Curriculum, Integrated A set of courses in various subjects that by design reinforce and overlap each other when taken simultaneously.
Dirty Space Space for assembly and production, typically used in technology education.
Discussion Area An alternative is to use a separate classroom for this purpose. In many instances this is desirable as the lab setting does not distract the students, and sometime there is no choice as the lab space is not large enough. A disadvantage is that the classroom might be scheduled for some other function at the time it is required.
Discussion Area Classroom, seminar, or other seating area for lecture or discussion. Depending on the curriculum, a discussion area is sometimes included as part of a lab. The format can be around a seminar table or in a bank of tablet arm chairs. The type of seating determines how much additional square footage will be needed. Chalkboard and demonstration devices should be available in this area. One advantage to mixing class and lab functions is that the students can easily move back and forth from discussion to lab work.
Endowment Funds or property invested by an institution as a source of income.
Experimentation The process of conducting tests relating to scientific investigation or inquiry. If students are required or encouraged to become engaged in hands-on experimentation, adequate space must be available. This can be in various forms from generous lab bench workspace, convenient to computers, to dedicated labs for special projects.
Facility Program A management tool and architect's directive for new construction or major renovations which formulates construction and project budget targets and identifies the discrete functional elements in the project - including a description of each space in terms of its purpose, function, size, spatial interrelationships, special requirements, fixtures and furnishings, utility needs, and other project-specific information.
Feasibility Study Programmatic requirement matched with institutional resources, in sufficient detail to determine project justification and feasibility for proceeding with detailed planning and fund-raising.
Fixed Asset A real or tangible resource, typically a building that can be evaluated in terms of use, function, and condition to increase or improve utilization and contain operating costs. Such an evaluation can be realized by the development of rational building renewal, reuse, and long-term revitalization plans.
Flexibility The ability to adapt or restructure physical settings, both in the long- or short-term, in response to such factors as change in pedagogic objectives.
Fume Hoods A fume-collection device under which certain tasks or experiments are conducted and through which air is drawn to directly remove gases and odors so they do not permeate the general space.
General Purpose/Discipline-specific Labs Some labs are designed for specific disciplines, e.g., a chemistry lab will have a fume hood and chemical storage, whereas a general purpose lab is designed to accommodate a variety of disciplines.
Glass View Panel A narrow vision strip in or next to a door to prevent collision of people entering and exiting the space, or a fixed window installed between rooms usually to allow teacher supervision of more than one space at a time.
Greenhouse A usually glass-enclosed structure used for cultivating plants that require controlled temperature and humidity.
Grid, Floor or Ceiling In teaching spaces, a system to distribute utilities to mobile stations.
Gross Square Footage (GSF) The sum of all areas on all floors of a building included within the outside faces of its exterior walls, including floor penetration areas, however insignificant, for circulation and shaft areas that connect one floor to another.
Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) A fast-acting electrical circuit breaker that also senses very small ground fault currents such as might flow through the body of a person standing on damp ground while touching a hot alternating-current line or wire.
Handheld Device Calculators, graphing calculators, palm PCs, etc., used in teaching
Hands-on Experiences Instruction in the classroom or laboratory that is tangible or focused on student activity, i.e., models, physical specimens, etc.
Holding Space for Animals Housing space for animals that provides the appropriate environment for their health and well-being.
Individual Instruction One-on-one interaction between teacher and student in a learning situation.
Interdisciplinary Teaching An interdisciplinary teaching approach can be the merging of two or more disciplines or it can imply that two or more disciplines are taught in tandem. In either case, there are facility implications.
International Technology Education Association (ITEA) The professional organization of technology teachers, whose mission is to promote technological literacy for all by supporting the teaching of technology and promoting the professionalism of those engaged in this pursuit. ITEA strengthens the profession through leadership, professional development, membership services, publications, and classroom activities.
Lab Space Space for experimental study using specialized equipment. The number of students in each class will determine how big the lab should be. In terms of layout and equipment, the desire, in most cases, is to provide labs that are flexible so that they can change as needs change. There should be enough support space, either in or out of the lab, for the various instructional materials that will be used in the space. This is particularly important when labs are shared or are multidisciplinary.
Laboratory Safety Ways to eliminate or minimize the risk of harm to individuals in the laboratory due to fire or chemical and biological hazards.
Local Area Network (LAN) Computers connected in a geographically close (same building or campus) network.
Mission Statement The process of defining a mission statement is as important as the statement itself. The process is a way to articulate principles, desired goals, and a pedagogical approach that an institution wishes to pursue.
National Science Foundation (NSF) An independent U.S. government agency responsible for promoting science and engineering through programs that invest over $3.3 billion per year in almost 20,000 research and education projects in science and engineering.
National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) The largest organization in the world committed to promoting excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning for all. NSTA's current membership of more than 53,000 includes science teachers, science supervisors, administrators, scientists, business and industry representatives, and others involved in science education.
Net Assignable Square Feet (NASF) Area of floor space available for use by occupants. This is a "wall-to-wall" measurement that includes area occupied by furniture, built-in cabinets, etc., but excludes the "non-assignable" space such as corridors and public rest rooms.
Net Assignable Square Feet per Station (NASF/Station) Total NASF of a space (see above) divided by the number of stations. This is a standard means of quantifying how much space each student has.
Network Port A wire connector for plugging in a jack usually located on a wall or floor, used to connect computers to a network.
New Construction Any new building, any building addition, or any building renovation in excess of $300,000.
New Teaching Methods Hands-on, experiential project-oriented group activities are examples of new methodology in teaching, and have become successful curriculum components in teaching science, math, and technology education at all levels of education. Integrating audiovisual technology and computers into the curriculum is another current venue, as are the use of the World Wide Web, simulation, and collaboration across disciplines, schools, and educational levels.
Non-assignable Space The sum of all areas on all floors of a building not available for assignment to an occupant or for specific use, but necessary for the general operation of a building, e.g., corridors and public rest rooms.
Other Teaching Space Computer labs, lecture rooms, and classrooms are the non-lab teaching spaces usually associated with science, math, and technology education instruction. In addition, there is often a need for students to work independently. Some examples of space required for this activity are student project areas where students, either independently or in small groups, can perform experiments and safely leave them; or open study or tutoring space, where an individual student can work with a teacher or students can work together.
Pedagogy The art, science, or profession of teaching.
Planning Committee A committee, made up of teachers and administrators, that defines the project assumptions to reflect the school's mission and vision for the future as well as the goals of the affected departments.
Program, Facility A written statement setting forth design objectives, constraints, and criteria for a project, including space requirements and relationships, flexibility and expandability, specialized equipment systems, and site requirements.
Project Prospectus A document describing the purpose, location, proposed budget, and implementation schedule for a major project - based on needs determined through related studies and consultations.
Prototype Laboratories A laboratory providing the ideal venue in which prescribed activities can occur.
Quick-connect System A quick-disconnect device is a connector to a utility that is equipped with an automatic means for shutting off the supply when the device is disconnected.
Renovation Construction projects that modify space in a manner that changes its use, that alters its dimensions or configuration, or that substantially upgrades and refurbishes it. Space renovations do not include repairs, routine servicing, or maintenance except as these may be accomplished in the course of modifications and renovations. Similarly, safety modifications and improvements to meet building and safety codes are excluded except as they are achieved as part of other construction.
Schematic Design The first phase of the architect's basic services during which he or she consults with the client to ascertain the requirements of the project and prepares schematic design studies consisting of drawings and other documents, illustrating the scale and relationship of the project components for approval by the client.
Site Selection A process for locating sites for new buildings, parking, or landscape features. The process includes the identification of evaluation standards and criteria, and the methods for applying them to different options.
Space Allocation Assumptions Assumptions developed by a school to provide guidance during the facility programming process and to avoid arbitrary and inconsistent assignments of space. Ideally, mission, academic plan, and curriculum guide this process.
Spanning Beam or Truss A truss is a structural element designed to carry transverse loads, composed of a combination of members, usually in some triangular arrangement, so as to constitute a rigid framework.
Spatial Relationships The relative position of one space or object to another.
Station Space to accommodate one person. The number of stations in a room is the number of persons who can be accomodated.
Structural Area The portion of the gross area of a building that cannot be occupied or put to use because of the presence of structural building features.
Structural Bay The structural support system between supporting columns in a building.
Student Project Lab Space set aside for ongoing student independent projects; usually allows experiments to remain set up undisturbed for extended time periods.
Summary Program The Summary Program states working assumptions, justifies need, defines the concept, lists the spaces to be included, and provides the foundation for an initial cost estimate. Certain basic information about each space is included - the name or type of space, the size of the space in square footage, the number of persons to be accommodated in the space (usually called “stations”), and a description of the space use.
Support Space Non-teaching spaces, often shared, which fulfill various preparation and storage needs not practical or appropriate in teaching spaces. These functions can also occur in the lab, but if the lab is shared, it can only be accessed when there is no class in session. Teacher office and workspace is another type of support.
Table and Chair Discussion area seating where the chair is not attached to the writing/work surface.
Tablet Arm Chair Discussion area seating where the chair is attached to an L-shaped writing/work surface.
Teacher Consultant Group A group of secondary and post-secondary school science and tech ed faculty members who act as consultants to assist the architects and/or facility planners in the design process.
Trustee A member of the board, which is elected or appointed to direct the funds or policy of an institution.
Utility Systems Means by which services such as water, electricity, gas, and compressed air are brought to spaces throughout the building.
Vision The expression of a department's goals and objectives consistent with the overall mission of the institution.
Vital Signs Study A diagnostic survey of the existing campus that observes, evaluates, and compares the function, size, condition, and appearance of the buildings and grounds to peer institutions and benchmark standards - an independent, objective reckoning, useful in establishing highest priority improvements and/or determining an appropriate focus and rationale for a campus plan, context plan, or detailed facility planning and programming studies.
Wall System, Movable Devices that give the teacher the ability to divide or combine teaching spaces quickly and easily with sliding, removable, or “accordion” room dividers.
Wheelchair-Accessible Provision of adequate space, sized in accordance with ADA regulations, to enable a person in a wheelchair to maneuver to and through the building.
Wireless Network Radio-based computer network system that allows data transmission through the air without physical (wire or fiber-optic) connection.
Workstation An individual work area created by the arrangement of furniture and/or equipment.

ESSENTIALS | PLANNING COMMITTEE | ASSUMPTIONS | CURRICULUM + PEDAGOGY
NEEDS + GUIDELINES | ALTERNATIVES | BEST ALTERNATIVE | FACILITY PROGRAM
ARCHITECT SELECTION | DESIGN | APPENDICES | SITE MAP